Although cocophilus is undeniably close to other species in the genus Bursaphelenchus (and may well prove to belong to that genus), there remains some. Bursaphelenchus cocophilus. Red Ring Nematode. Synonym: Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus. Rhadinaphelenchus was designated a junior. The red ring nematode, Bursaphelenchus cocophilus, was first described by Cobb. () as Aphelenchus cocophilus from specimens in.

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At the brsaphelenchus of symptoms, the chlorotic yellow appearance of the leaves around the stem is sometimes indistinguishable from those of trees growing under conditions of poor drainage or during intense drought.

Experimentally, it has also been shown that red ring disease can be caused by the nematodes entering the plant through the root system.

Recent developments with baited traps include use of a pheromone Rhynkolure to attract the palm weevil to banana treated with insecticide Cid del Prado, pers. They do so by attracting and killing palm weevils which may enter the plantations from nearby diseased trees. Nematodes can be transmitted by putting infected tissue in soil near healthy trees, but nematode survives free in soil only days.

Native Origin Native Origin: In external symptoms, already-established leaves become short and deformed and turn yellow-bronze, then deep reddish-brown. Guard baskets are cylindrical, 1 m high and 0. Postvulval uterine sac elongate, extending to about 0. This can be modified by actually macerating the diseased tissue in a blender in order to liberate more lethargic nematodes.

These symptoms differ somewhat in the dwarf variety ‘nana’ and also some panama talls.

Bursaphelenchus cocophilus – Wikipedia

Effective patterns of control may be employed during several phases of the development of the epidemic. Palms that are already infected and dying from red-ring disease give off a chemical that attracts even more weevils Giblin-Davis et al. New leaves often get shorter as the disease progresses, causing the central crown of the tree bursaphelenchua resemble a funnel.


Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus a potential foreign threat to Florida palms. A survey of red ring disease of coconut palm in Grenada, West Indies. Yes Plants or parts of plants Yes. If an infected tree is found it must be removed, treated with herbicide and cut down. Control is based on prevention rather than cure either by the destruction of infested palm material by cutting and burning, or by the injection of nematocides and burning, or by trapping and killing of the weevil vectors before they spread the nematodes.

Symptoms Top bursaphelenchks page Young coconut palms easily succumb cocopyilus R. To manage this disease scouting is the most important aspect; early detection of infected trees may save plantations.

There is a serious economic threat if the red ring disease comes to the United States; especially since it could then be vectored by native Rhincophorus cruentatus. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http: In longitudinal section, the reddened tissue may appear as two united bands joined in the bole bursaphelencyus a U-shape or full circle.

Texas Invasive Species Institute

The survival stage is the J3. In leaves, stem and roots, they block water pathways, reducing the palm’s water absorption. Red ring nematodes invade both palm tissue and roots. Cicophilus of California, Davis, Department of Nematology. In coconut tissues, R. If the nematode is able to utilize the native weevils it would expand the range of threat bursaphelenxhus just California and Texas, where the South American Palm Weevil is present, to all states where palm trees grow or are imported.

Males have seven papillae in the tail region, distinct spicules, and bursa shaped as a spade. These trees should be cut into sections and treated with insecticide or burned Giblin-Davis Treating infested palms with nematicides is difficult because the nematicides do not easily spread throughout an infested tree and often do not penetrate the area of the trunk usually inhabited by the nematodes Chinchilla Many trees show yellowing and bursaphdlenchus of leaves which may not be due to R.

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Impact Top of page R. The surface of the cut in a healthy bursaphelenchue appears a solid, creamy white. The guard baskets are sprayed with pesticide and distributed on the ground in the plantations at one basket per acre 2.

Trabalhos apresentados a VI reuniao Brasileira de nematologia, fevereiro deFortaleza. Views Read Edit View history.

This diseased tree, however, forms a source of inoculum as it becomes chemically attractive to all palm weevils including potential vectors. The resultant suspension is made up to 1 litre in a bottle and allowed to stand for 30 minutes. It is estimated that 72 percent of those weevils were carrying Bursaphelenchus cocophilus Esser and Meredith The crown often topples over, about weeks after symptoms first appear, due to associated severe damage caused internally by the larvae of the palm weevil.

There is no record of any tree, once affected, having recovered. Roots are similarly discolored, with soft, spongy cortex. Aphelenchida Tree diseases Oil palm Coconut palm diseases. For more information on the South American Palm Weevil click here. Retrieved from ” https: One gram of such tissue can contain as many of 10 nematodes.